Until 1998, comprehensive examinations of the flora and fauna of the National Park were conducted. Altogether 1726 species of plants were identified, which can be grouped into 90 vegetation types and 144 plant communities, 12 of which are aquatic communities. 150 of these plant species are on Germany's Red List of Threatened Species, 303 on the Red List of Brandenburg. 24 plant communities are listed in categories 1 and 2 of the German Red List of Most Threatened Types of Biotope. Almost one in six species listed in the Red List of Germany, and almost half of the species on the Red List of Brandenburg occur in the Lower Oder Valley.